The Gunners arrived at Stamford Bridge having lost their last three matches but roared back to form with a huge victory, led by Eddie Nketiah’s brace as he scored his first Premier League goals of the season.
With six matches remaining, including a north London derby in the penultimate week of the campaign, it leaves Arsenal level on points with Tottenham.
Arteta’s side welcome Manchester United to the Emirates this weekend before travelling to face West Ham, and the Gunners boss wants his players to take confidence from their display against Chelsea.
“What I love is the spirit of these players,” Arteta said.
“When you lose matches, you get punched. You get criticised but for these players I don’t care, it’s so worth it.
“They are phenomenal people, as a group they are really growing. For our people, I know that with all the expectations that they have it’s been really disappointing for them, so for us to win a London derby away from home the way we did it, I’m really happy for them.
“I think it will help because it gives you confidence and belief that you can do it at the biggest stage, away from home against the top teams in this league. Hopefully [the players] can believe more in themselves.”
Nketiah got Arsenal up and running with the opening goal and then made it 3-2 in the second-half, showing his natural instincts in front of goal on both occasions.
He made the most of a rare start, as did Mohamed Elneny and Rob Holding who came into the starting lineup, and Arteta hailed the trio for the impact they had on the team.
“What I’ve been saying all the time about Eddie – when you look at him in training, how he behaves and how humble and hungry he is, good things happen,” Arteta said.
“Good things happen to good people, the same as Mohamed Elneny and Rob Holding.
“When you see the training session they did on Sunday after we lost to Southampton, this is why we won the game tonight in my opinion.”